Bioconjugation in antibody discovery is a critical skill that can be used for a wide range of applications. That assumes, of course, that each molecule—chosen for the purpose of achieving your research goals—can maintain its critical function after being joined to its co-molecule.

There are different strategies and chemistries involved in producing stable and successful bioconjugates. Even the most common bioconjugations used in antibody discovery require expertise to generate a quality reagent. Whether it’s the coupling of peptides to carrier proteins to use as immunogens or antibody conjugation to affinity tags, fluorescent dyes and enzymes to use as detecting agents, what may seem to be a simple task can easily suffer from over- or under-conjugation. Achieving an optimal ratio of conjugated molecules can be the difference between success and failure in the use of the reagent and whether or not the bioconjugate is fit-for-purpose.

Selecting the optimal conditions for bioconjugation depends on both the intended application and the structure of the molecules of interest. For example, immunization with a low-ratio of a peptide to a carrier protein can result in a weak or poor antibody response. Similarly, screening with an over- or under-conjugated antigen or antibody can impact the sensitivity of the reagent in an assay for binding activity.

Successful bioconjugations can yield value in a broad spectrum of applications, from antibody discovery and purification to immunoassays and therapeutics (Table 1).

Table 1: Common Bioconjugations





Peptides, Lipids, Carbohydrates, & Haptens

Carrier Proteins (BSA, Ovalbumin, KLH, Blue Carrier Protein)


Antibody Discovery

Peptides, Proteins, Lipids, Carbohydrates, & Haptens

Biotin, Fluorescent Dyes

Detecting Reagents for Antibodies

Antibody Discovery

Peptides, Proteins, Lipids, Carbohydrates & Haptens

Solid Supports (e.g., Agarose, Beads

Affinity Matrices

Antibody Purification


Solid Supports(e.g., Agarose, Beads

Antigen Capture

Antigen Purification and Immunoassays


Biotin, Fluorescent Dyes, Enzymes

Detecting Reagents for Antigens




Bi-specific Antibodies

Antibody Therapeutics




Antibody Therapeutics

Bioconjugations vary widely in the choice of co-molecules, moiety compatibility, the chemistry used, impact on functional activity and the application. That’s why it’s so critical to have an experienced hand at your side to ensure bioconjugations are successful and fit-for-purpose.

Our team of experts at Antibody Solutions can help you keep your project on track and moving at full speed by ensuring the bioconjugate is suitable for your research effort. We don’t have to farm out that specialty—we have it right here, and we rely on our broad knowledge of antibody discovery to help unlock the right combination that matches your application. Through our custom conjugation services for both monoclonal and polyclonal campaigns, we can help optimize your research efficiency by:

  • Adhering to appropriate and time-tested protocols
    Verifying conjugation reactions by determining conjugation ratios of the co-molecules
  • Addressing solubility concerns and using low-immunogenicity linkers
  • Developing analytical assays for conjugation ratios and material testing

True to our fit-for-purpose philosophy, we tailor our methodology to your target molecule. The end result of that focus is that we can offer your team:

  • Time and cost savings — We know from broad experience which specific reagents and chemistries to rely on when creating a bioconjugate of the highest sensitivity. You don’t need to spend time optimizing a protocol for a single project.
  • Confidence — Our comprehensive approach includes co-molecule evaluation, optimization efforts and robust quality control (in part by bioconjugation verification, including SDS-Gels for peptide conjugates and the use of absorbance and other analytical assays for conjugation ratios).
  • Flexibility — Though we operate from established protocols, we also recognize the unique value that can come from developing and using novel co-molecules and chemistries for bioconjugation

With all the skills and experience you need under our roof, Antibody Solutions can help you identify the best bioconjugates to use for immunizations or screening purposes, and then leverage those materials in your ongoing research initiatives. Your Antibody Solutions project manager will work one-on-one with you and your colleagues to identify your specific needs and match them to the optimal conjugates.

Magic can happen when the right things are paired together (we see it happen on an almost daily basis around here). So the next time you’re looking for the right bioconjugation expert to help move your research forward, let’s talk.