Antibody Research

2 min read

Chemical Synthesis and X-ray Structure of a Heterochiral {D-protein antagonist plus vascular endothelial growth factor} Protein Complex by Racemic Crystallography

By Antibody Solutions Research Team on Nov 11, 2012 11:28:00 AM

Total chemical synthesis was used to prepare the mirror image (D-protein) form of the angiogenic protein vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A). Phage display against D-VEGF-A was used to screen designed libraries based on a unique small protein scaffold in order to identify a high affinity ligand. Chemically synthesized D- and L- forms of the protein ligand showed reciprocal chiral specificity in surface plasmon resonance binding experiments: The L-protein ligand bound only to D-VEGF-A, whereas the D-protein ligand bound only to L-VEGF-A. The D-protein ligand, but not the L-protein ligand, inhibited the binding of natural VEGF(165) to the VEGFR1 receptor. Racemic protein crystallography was used to determine the high resolution X-ray structure of the heterochiral complex consisting of {D-protein antagonist + L-protein form of VEGF-A}. Crystallization of a racemic mixture of these synthetic proteins in appropriate stoichiometry gave a racemic protein complex of more than 73 kDa containing six synthetic protein molecules. The structure of the complex was determined to a resolution of 1.6 Å. Detailed analysis of the interaction between the D-protein antagonist and the VEGF-A protein molecule showed that the binding interface comprised a contact surface area of approximately 800 Å(2) in accord with our design objectives, and that the D-protein antagonist binds to the same region of VEGF-A that interacts with VEGFR1-domain 2.

Topics: Publications VEGF-A D Protein
1 min read

Ligand Binding Assays in the 21st Century Laboratory: Recommendations for Characterization and Supply of Critical Reagents

By Antibody Solutions Research Team on Jun 14, 2012 11:27:00 AM

Critical reagents are essential components of ligand binding assays (LBAs) and are utilized throughout the process of drug discovery, development, and post-marketing monitoring. Successful lifecycle management of LBA critical reagents minimizes assay performance problems caused by declining reagent activity and can mitigate the risk of delays during preclinical and clinical studies. Proactive reagent management assures adequate supply. It also assures that the quality of critical reagents is appropriate and consistent for the intended LBA use throughout all stages of the drug development process. This manuscript summarizes the key considerations for the generation, production, characterization, qualification, documentation, and management of critical reagents in LBAs, with recommendations for antibodies (monoclonal and polyclonal), engineered proteins, peptides, and their conjugates. Recommendations are given for each reagent type on basic and optional characterization profiles, expiration dates and storage temperatures, and investment in a knowledge database system. These recommendations represent a consensus among the authors and should be used to assist bioanalytical laboratories in the implementation of a best practices program for critical reagent life cycle management.

Topics: Publications LBAs Critical Reagents

Cadherin-11 Antagonists and Methods for the Treatment of Inflammatory Joint Disorders

By Antibody Solutions Research Team on Jul 5, 2011 3:38:00 PM

The present invention relates to Cadherin-11 antagonists and compositions comprising Cadherin-11 antagonists. The invention also relates to methods for treating inflammatory joint disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, in a mammalian subject by administering a therapeutically effective amount of a Cadherin-11 antagonist.

Topics: Publications Cadherin-11
1 min read

Modulation of Lysyl Oxidase-like 2 Enzymatic Activity by an Allosteric Antibody Inhibitor

By Antibody Solutions Research Team on Jul 2, 2010 11:26:00 AM

In this report, we assessed the steady-state enzymatic activity of lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) against the substrates 1,5-diaminopentane (DAP), spermine, and fibrillar type I collagen. We find that both DAP and spermine are capable of activating LOXL2 to the same extent and have similar Michaelis constants (K(m) approximately 1 mm) and catalytic rates (k(cat) approximately 0.02 s(-1)). We also show that LOXL2 is capable of being inhibited by a known suicide inhibitor of lysyl oxidase (LOX), beta-aminopropionitrile, which we find is a potent inhibitor of LOXL2 activity. The modality of inhibition of beta-aminopropionitrile was also examined and found to be competitive with respect to the substrates DAP and spermine. In addition, we identified an antibody inhibitor (AB0023) of LOXL2 enzymatic function and have found that the inhibition occurs in a non-competitive manner with respect to both spermine and DAP. The binding epitope of AB0023 was mapped to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain four of human LOXL2. AB0023 binds to a region remote from the catalytic domain making AB0023 an allosteric inhibitor of LOXL2. This affords AB0023 several advantages, because it is specific for LOXL2 and inhibits the enzymatic function of LOXL2 in a non-competitive manner thereby allowing inhibition of LOXL2 regardless of substrate concentration. These results suggest that antibody allosteric modulators of enzymatic function represent a novel drug development strategy and, in the context of LOXL2, suggest that inhibitors such as these might be useful therapeutics in oncology, fibrosis, and inflammation.

Topics: Publications LOXL2
1 min read

DLL4 Blockade Inhibits Tumor Growth and Reduces Tumor-Initiating Cell Frequency

By Antibody Solutions Research Team on Aug 7, 2009 11:26:00 AM

Previous studies have shown that blocking DLL4 signaling reduced tumor growth by disrupting productive angiogenesis. We developed selective anti-human and anti-mouse DLL4 antibodies to dissect the mechanisms involved by analyzing the contributions of selectively targeting DLL4 in the tumor or in the host vasculature and stroma in xenograft models derived from primary human tumors. We found that each antibody inhibited tumor growth and that the combination of the two antibodies was more effective than either alone. Treatment with anti-human DLL4 inhibited the expression of Notch target genes and reduced proliferation of tumor cells. Furthermore, we found that specifically inhibiting human DLL4 in the tumor, either alone or in combination with the chemotherapeutic agent irinotecan, reduced cancer stem cell frequency, as shown by flow cytometric and in vivo tumorigenicity studies.

Topics: Publications DLL4
1 min read

Regulation of BRCA2 Gene Expression by the SLUG Repressor Protein in Human Breast Cells

By Antibody Solutions Research Team on Apr 29, 2005 11:23:00 AM

The expression of the breast cancer susceptibility protein BRCA2 is highly regulated in human breast, ovary, and pancreatic cells. BRCA2 is not expressed in the non-dividing cells, and expression is cell cycle stage-dependent and is elevated in the sporadic cancer cells. Mutational analysis of the upstream sequence of the human BRCA2 gene revealed an E2-box-containing silencer at the -701 to -921 position. The E2-box is essential for the cell-cycle stage-dependent activity of the silencer. We affinity-purified a 29-kDa silencer-binding protein (SBP) from the nuclear extracts of human breast cells BT-549 and MDA-MB-231. We explored whether the E2-box-binding repressor protein SLUG, which is of similar molecular size, is involved in the silencing process. Supershift assay with the purified SBP and anti-SLUG antibody revealed the identity of the SBP as SLUG. We found that silencer is inactive in the human breast cancer cells such as MDA-MB-468 and MCF-7 that do not express SLUG, further suggesting the involvement of SLUG in the BRCA2 gene silencing. Inducible expression of human SLUG in the dividing MDA-MB-468 cells reduced BRCA2 RNA levels with the activation of the silencer. Furthermore, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of SLUG mRNA in the BT-549 cells caused inhibition of the silencer function. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays suggested that SLUG mediates its action by recruiting C-terminal-binding protein-1 (CtBP-1) and histone deacetylase-1 (HDAC-1) at the silencer E2-box. The general HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A, inhibited the SLUG-mediated regulation of the silencer function. It thus appears that SLUG is a negative regulator for BRCA2 gene expression.

Topics: Publications BRCA2
1 min read

Therapeutic Targeting of Endothelial Ligands for L-selectin (PNAd) in a Sheep Model of Asthma

By Antibody Solutions Research Team on Mar 16, 2005 11:24:00 AM

The homing of lymphocytes to peripheral lymph nodes is initiated by an adhesive interaction between L-selectin on lymphocytes and PNAd, a set of sialomucins that are constitutively displayed on high endothelial venules of lymph nodes. PNAd is defined by monoclonal antibody MECA-79 that recognizes a sulfated oligosaccharide carried by the sialomucins. This epitope overlaps with 6-sulfo sialyl Lewis x, a recognition determinant for L-selectin. Previous work has shown that administration of a L-selectin monoclonal antibody blocks both late-phase airway responses and airway hyperresponsiveness in a sheep model of asthma. We show here that airway-associated lymphoid collections from lungs of allergic sheep exhibited PNAd(+) venules as detected by immunostaining with MECA-79. The same vessels also expressed a GlcNAc-6-O-sulfotransferase known as HEC-GlcNAc6ST, which is known to contribute to the formation of the MECA-79 epitope in high endothelial venules of mouse lymph nodes. Intravenous administration of MECA-79 to allergic sheep significantly blunted both the late-phase airway response and airway hyperresponsiveness induced by airway allergen challenge. Furthermore, MECA-79 inhibited the accumulation of all classes of leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. These findings represent the first demonstration that targeting of PNAd has therapeutic efficacy in an inflammatory disease.

Topics: Publications L-selectin PNAd
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HIV-1 Vif Blocks the Antiviral Activity of APOBEC3G by Impairing Both its Translation and Intracellular Stability

By Antibody Solutions Research Team on Sep 12, 2003 11:22:00 AM

The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) relies on Vif (viral infectivity factor) to overcome the potent antiviral function of APOBEC3G (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G, also known as CEM15). Using an APOBEC3G-specific antiserum, we now show that Vif prevents virion incorporation of endogenous APOBEC3G by effectively depleting the intracellular levels of this enzyme in HIV-1-infected T cells. Vif achieves this depletion by both impairing the translation of APOBEC3G mRNA and accelerating the posttranslational degradation of the APOBEC3G protein by the 26S proteasome. Vif physically interacts with APOBEC3G, and expression of Vif alone in the absence of other HIV-1 proteins is sufficient to cause depletion of APOBEC3G. These findings highlight how the bimodal translational and posttranslational inhibitory effects of Vif on APOBEC3G combine to markedly suppress the expression of this potent antiviral enzyme in virally infected cells, thereby effectively curtailing the incorporation of APOBEC3G into newly formed HIV-1 virions.

Topics: Publications HIV-1 CEM15 APOBEC3G
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ARMER, Apoptotic Regulator in the Membrane of the Endoplasmic Reticulum, a Novel Inhibitor of Apoptosis

By Antibody Solutions Research Team on May 11, 2003 11:21:00 AM

We have identified a novel protein, apoptotic regulator in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ARMER), which protects HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells from apoptosis induced by various stimuli. We demonstrate that ARMER is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) integral membrane protein with four predicted transmembrane domains and a COOH-terminal KKXX ER retrieval motif. We used an inducible expression system (pIND) to study the effects of regulated ARMER overexpression. Cells in which ARMER was overexpressed exhibited protection from multiple apoptotic inducers including serum starvation, doxorubicin, UV irradiation, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and the ER stressors brefeldin A, tunicamycin, and thapsigargin. Analysis of the caspase proteolytic cascade reveals that ARMER inhibits proteolysis of the caspase-9-specific fluorogenic substrate LEHD-AFC as well as endogenous substrates downstream of caspase-9; however, it does not inhibit cytochrome c release or cleavage of caspase-9 itself. Apoptotic stimuli cause endogenous levels of ARMER protein and RNA to decrease, leading to cell death; however, sustaining ARMER protein levels through exogenous expression inhibits apoptosis. These data suggest that ARMER is a novel ER integral membrane protein which protects cells by inhibiting caspase-9 activity and reveal a possible role for ARMER in cell survival.

Topics: Publications ARMER
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Drosophila p53 is a Structural and Functional Homolog of the Tumor Suppressor p53

By Antibody Solutions Research Team on Mar 31, 2000 3:41:00 PM

The importance of p53 in carcinogenesis stems from its central role in inducing cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in response to cellular stresses. We have identified a Drosophila homolog of p53 ("Dmp53"). Like mammalian p53, Dmp53 binds specifically to human p53 binding sites, and overexpression of Dmp53 induces apoptosis. Importantly, inhibition of Dmp53 function renders cells resistant to X ray-induced apoptosis, suggesting that Dmp53 is required for the apoptotic response to DNA damage. Unlike mammalian p53, Dmp53 appears unable to induce a G1 cell cycle block when overexpressed, and inhibition of Dmp53 activity does not affect X ray-induced cell cycle arrest. These data reveal an ancestral proapoptotic function for p53 and identify Drosophila as an ideal model system for elucidating the p53 apoptotic pathway(s) induced by DNA damage.

Topics: Publications p53 carcinogenesis